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Social Relevant Themes

Drugs Abuse Prevention

With numbers of addicted people in Cambodia on the rise to an estimated 600.000 in 2006 it is clear that from almost non-existent in the early 1990’s to present day, there is an urgent need to inform teenagers about the risks and effects of drugs use. This manual aims to inform them about the characteristics of the most popular drugs in Cambodia as well as to give them knowledge on short-term and long-term effects of drugs using to their personal lives and to influence it has to their family and friends.



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Alcoholism Prevention

This manual provides teachers with 5 lessons about Alcoholism under the Health and Personal Wellbeing component of the Locally Relevant Social Themes life skills program. The emphasis is on developing the knowledge of teachers and students using appropriate student-centered methodology as outlined in the accompanying Local Life Skills Trainer/Teacher Education Manual. In these 5 lessons the teacher can provide the students with sufficient knowledge and applicable tools to make responsible choices towards drinking alcohol. Recent studies indicate that the number of Cambodian teenagers that start drinking at an early age is rising, as is the amount of alcohol they consume. It is therefore that this manual can change their stance and awareness towards the impact and effects of drinking Alcohol.



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Enviroment Issue

This module seeks to help youth better understand how they can increase their own ‘well-being’ and those of others in their local environments and the national community by acquiring basic principles of literacy about ecology. The word ‘ecology’ is an important one that everyone on our planet should know. It refers not just to the environment, but to the ‘relationship between living things and the surrounding environment.’ What we do in this relationship can have good or bad effects on the environment so it is important that we understand how these interactions work and most importantly, how we can minimize the bad effects and maximize the good effects. When we maximize the good effects, we also increase our own personal well-being.



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Personal Understanding

There is a wealth of material and numerous resources already developed around the themes of personal understanding and social relationships. In many cases, this material has been pre-tested and designed based on evaluation findings of field tests. Therefore, it was decided that it was more efficient to draw on existing tested materials than to reinvent the wheel.



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Water Sanitation

Earth is an useful natural resource warehouse. The resource we take from earth for use is called “natural resource”. Those natural resources include soil, water, air, plants, animals, mineral which are useful for the living of humans. Of those natural resources, some after use are not renewable or they are renewable after millions of years, such as mineral, oil, coal… However, some natural resources after use are renewable, such as plants, air, soil, and water. Water is the renewable natural resource that moves constantly in the water cycle. Water is the earth’s wealth and on earth water covers three fourth of the earth surface. There are two types of water: fresh water and salty water.



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Gender Sensitivity

GENDER is a cross-cutting theme that should be integrated into all content and processes of local life skills program. At the same time, encouraging students to focus on specific gender concerns at the local level should be an essential part of the education experience.



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Safe Migration

This manual provides the teaching staff 10 lessons to facilitate teaching and learning about safe migration and human trafficking under the health and personal wellbeing component of the locally relevant social themes life skills program. While much attention has already been given to educating youth regarding safe migration, there are still great dangers and challenges for women and men from the rural area that plan to move to bigger cities. With this manual we strive to prepare youth with the necessary skills and knowledge to migrate safely and prepared to other places.



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Practical Livelihoods



Bicycle Repair

In poor countries in the world such as Cambodia, women and men use bicycle as a way to travel and transport material. Having a bicycle improves people’s living standard. The women and men living in rural areas can earn 1U.S dollar per day, so earning some money to buy one bicycle is also difficult. Bicycles are used by girls and boys go to school to improve education to children along the remote areas; to bring water and firewood to cook food. It is also used for the transportation of goods to the near markets and cycling is also something that children like to do. It is important that children learn how to keep their bicycle in a good condition so it can be used a longer time. Besides that, if students learn how to repair their bicycle when simple problems occur, it saves them money they need to spend to a repairman otherwise.




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Bio Gardening

Cambodia is an agricultural country in which the population of 72.3% works on farms, according to the population consensus document of Ministry of Planning in 2008. Their livelihood links to their surrounding natural resources especially the plants that women and men can collect and eat, use as medicine, or cook for their food etc... However, these resources are worryingly scarcer and scarcer. This document is compiled to respond to the need of knowledge and skills of the male and female students related to their livelihood in accordance with the life skills policy. This document also facilitates education professionals in teaching life skills in lower secondary schools to meet the needs of students who are interested in gardening and planting techniques.




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Chicken Raising

Chicken raising is practiced in Cambodia since a long time, but generally chickens are raised only for family consumption. Those chicken raisers were not able to sell a lot of chickens to support their livelihood. In many families, chicken raising has lacked attention to keeping good hygiene at the raising site, the selection of races, vaccination and treatment. In this regards, the Committee for Production and Veterinary Development has prepared the Document on Chicken Raising which aims to promote a successful and professional chicken raising.




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Cooking

Nowadays, all most 99 percent of people around the word consider supplying hygiene food to take care their own health well, especially get away from diseases. Taking care health in this way, they can do it easily just by eating vegetables, fruits, fishes, and meats that are free from chemical substances. For vegetable and fruit, we can find it in village; especially we can grow by our own self. Preparing daily food can be made by everyone, especially youths who are in lower secondary school age because they have to help their parents work in their house as well as help to think about daily food expenses. Therefore, showing about how to cook is very important for students in this level.




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Fish Raising

Fish raising never existed before. People went out fishing in the natural lakes, creeks, canals, or rivers etc. The reason why female and male farmers decided to raise fish is that some lakes have become shallower and natural fish has become scarce, population grows. They have difficulty to fish in the nature. Because of these difficulties, women and men first began to raise very few ‘pra’ fish and ‘chdor’ fish. Later the natural fish production reduced gradually year by year, our women and men then continued to raise ‘chpin’, tilapia ‘kranh’, ‘andeng’… Nowadays, most fishes sold in the market are raised fish.




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Frog Raising

Frogs raising did not exist 20 years earlier. People caught them in the natural lakes, ponds, rice fields etc. The reason why farmers decided to raise frogs is that the population became endangered. The frog catchers catch big and small frogs and they almost became extinct. Of those frog raisers, some use it to supplement their daily diet wit necessary meat and others are able to raise many frogs so they can sell them an earn money with it.




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Fruit Processing

Cambodia’s geography is favorable for all types of plants, such as vegetables, grass, vines, big trees, or fruit trees… etc. These plants, especially fruit trees grow and give good yields in all regions including coastal, plateau, or low land. There are many types of fruit trees our women and men love to plant in the nearby village or on the big farm. The fruit produce is taken to and sold at the market by our women and men and sometimes they have difficulty to keep the surpluses.




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Hair Cutting

The manual “Hair dressing Life Skill” is intended to assist learners in acquiring knowledge, skills and experience in easy life skills related to daily living in this current society. Hair cutting job is simple but popular in over the country and also foreign country because all people need to be made their hair to be good-looking according to culture of each country, so people who acquire knowledge and are able to do hair cutting properly can make their living better as others people..




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Masonry

This manual about Masonry Work aims to help student body to acquire good knowledge skill attitude and experiences in easy life skill related to masonry work. Masonry work is a foundation work of building which requires patience, skillfulness, and strong physical strength, too. Construction sector is growing continuously and rapidly in according to the development of globalization and Cambodia context. This causes Cambodian youth to be interested in this sector that this requires to a development of a manual about masonry work for practicing in secondary schools in order to contribute to the country development with the royal government of Cambodia.




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Mushroom Growing

The main objective of this straw mushroom growing teacher manual is to help the learners gain knowledge, skills and experience in the simple life skills relating to the growing of straw mushrooms. Studying how to grow straw mushroom from a young age links to the can help young people improve their daily life by growing and selling mushrooms with their family. By learning students skills and knowledge relevant to their daily lives, parents and students will also value education more an essential stage of life and this will increase the motivation of both to complete secondary education.




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Rice Cultivation


Rice production in Cambodia covers an area that is approximately 60% of the total area, or 181,035 square kilometers. According to Cambodia’s General Census 2008 by the Ministry of Planning, about 72.3% of Cambodians are farmers. Due to the extent of rice production, rice is the primary staple for Cambodians and many other countries in Asia.




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Sewing


Based on the life skills curriculum of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport, we have prepared the sewing skills module for lower secondary male/female students. The content of each lesson in the module is related to daily life which is being popular in our contemporary society. The life skill of sewing subject is very beneficial because it’s the pre-vocation that provides knowledge and experience to teaching staff in this section, and for student body to understand the features of using hand stitches and preparing the tool when sewing. In addition, they can develop skills in measuring, drawing, sewing and the way of preparing material for making simple shirts for women, men or infants. Through this study,. it is possible to promote individual autonomy of girls and boys throug providing them skills and knowledge about sewing, which is really useful in daily routine and related to life care to both females and male students.




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Vegetable Growing


Vegetable product is classified into protective foods group which all citizens in general like to eat, which nowadays those vegetables are in need and they are imported from neighboring countries. In vegetable production process, there are many kinds of varieties, and our farmers never consider the season in which their product can be sold at high price, that is, after the harvest, they will continue the cultivation. Thus, those farmers will loss. In each region, there is little vegetable crop land, and farmers with most cultivating opportlessony are those living around Phnom Penh city. Cambodian citizens as well as people all over the world are regularly in need of vegetables to eat.




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Economic and Business Studies



World of Work


The manual World of Work is intended to assist learners in acquiring knowledge, skills and experience in preparation for employment in a variety of occupations in their community, province, country and world. The understanding of the variety of work and soft-skills help students play an important role in their society and in their homes. Learning how to prepare for work at an early age and connecting skills with needs and goals will help young adults think about expected behaviors in the workplace and how to become a good employee.




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My Marketing Skill

The manual My Marketing Skills is intended to assist learners in acquiring knowledge, skills and experience in the practical life skills area of Basic Bookkeeping. Learning more legitimate and accountable means to track financial transactions that take place in the market and local workplaces will help young adults avoid some of the pitfalls that are commonly witnessed in practice today. We hope youth of today can become more sensible in their management of money through enhancing their knowledge and skills in recorded accounts, budgeting, pricing and general ability to do the basic mathematics of cash transactions.




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Teacher's Book

Student's Book



My Future

The manual My Future is intended to assist learners in acquiring knowledge and skills that can expand their thinking about future possibilities of occupations, whether it is through an employer or seeking self-employment opportunities. Learning more about the options that exist and the demands for education, knowledge and skills that are associated with those options, will make these young adults increasingly more informed planners, seekers and decision makers. To date too many young adults leave their future paths purely subject to chance rather than a purposeful path they pursue.




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Teacher's Book

Student's Book



Money Management

The manual Money Management is intended to assist learners in acquiring knowledge, skills and experience in the practical life skills area of Money Management. Money plays an important role in our society and in our homes. Learning how to manage money at an earlier age and connecting money management with needs, priorities and goals will help young adults avoid some of the pitfalls that are commonly witnessed in local financial transactions. We hope youth of today can become more forward thinking and goal oriented in their management of money: valuing planning, budgeting and following basic principles in making a business a growth opportunity.




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Teacher's Book

Student's Book



Saving and Spending

In Cambodia there is a strong culture in saving your money and other valuables in various ways. In this module we want to teach students the advantages and disadvantages of different methods like buying cows, land, buying gold, or hiding valuable possessions. Besides that, we want to students to learn that saving non-monetary items is just as important for your selfesteem and living environment. The banking system and Micro Finance Institutes are also rapidly growing. Therefore it is necessary that the students learn how these institutions work and how they can use them. This module will not focus on how to make budgets and how to handle money.




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Social and Child Enterprise

One of the characteristics of the Cambodian society is the high rate of small shops and enterprises. Entrepreneurship is something that has a strong ground. It is desirable to provide youth with entrepreneurial life skills so they will successfully be able to develop alternative options of economic careers. Besides the positive outlook and believe in themselves it would also prepare the young populations for the uncertainties of life. Another characteristic is the way communities are organized. There is a strong bond with other members of the village and many things are shared. Because school can contribute greatly to this social aspect, it’s important to find ways to work with and for the community. Social awareness and improving the quality of life are heavy words, but can be pursued in a light, entertaining way. This modules aims to do so.



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Choosing Your Future

The manual Choosing Your Future is intended for career resource persons in lower secondary schools to train students in the necessary skills to research the different types of study, training and careers available to them in their local area, their province and nationally, as well as how to find out how careers relate to their skills, interests and school studies and what daily tasks workers in different sectors carry out.



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